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Nest Boxes for Desert Birds

Background: Conservation! Action! Research!

Eastern "Azure" Bluebird eggs by Olya Phillips

Eastern “Azure” Bluebird eggs by Olya Phillips

Many Tucsonans will look to the skies each year, searching for American Kestrels and other birds we know and love. What is the future for these local treasures? Learning that the Kestrel population has declined 80% across Arizona over the last 40 years is certainly not encouraging. The good news is that regular citizens like us can act to support Sonoran Desert birds right here in Tucson. Right now.

American Kestrels, Ash-throated Flycatchers, Lucy’s Warblers—and many other species—suffer from loss of habitat, especially in Arizona’s expanding urban centers. One conservation action that Tucson Audubon is exploring to offset this loss of habitat is providing nest boxes for cavity-nesting species like these. Look around Tucson and you’ll notice that few boxes are being offered to our birds. Together we can change this—starting in our own yards and neighborhoods. We can make Tucson an even more bird-friendly city.

Nest Boxes: An Experiment

Tucson Audubon is encouraging people to put up nest boxes in their yards. For a long time people believed that boxes get too hot in our desert environment. However, we have conducted a temperature study and received numerous reports of successful nest boxes in the desert Southwest. We are now asking people to install boxes in a responsible manner which we describe below, and report their observations. Please join our experiment by hanging a nest box in your yard! We believe we can help support cavity-nesting birds in this way! Follow the instructions below.

→ For up-to-date information about this program contact Olya Phillips at

Lucy's Warbler Eggs in Triangle boxby Olya Phillips

Lucy’s Warbler Eggs in Triangle box by Olya Phillips

Learn more about Cavity-nesting Birds in our Area!

There are more than ten cavity-nesting bird species in the lowland areas of southeast Arizona. Read these info sheets about the cavity-nesting species in the Tucson and Green Valley metro areas that are most likely to use boxes.

  • American Kestrel
  • Western Screech-Owl
  • Ash-throated Flycatcher
  • Brown-crested Flycatcher
  • Lucy’s Warbler
  • Bewick’s Wren
  • Barn Owls
  • Bluebirds: Bluebirds do not nest in the lowlands around Tucson or Green Valley, though they show up in parks sometimes in the winter. However, Western Bluebirds do nest in our local “Sky Island” mountains. In addition, the “Azure” or “Mexican” subspecies of the Eastern Bluebird nests in oak forests and grasslands in and around the Patagonia Mountains and historically in the grasslands near Sonoita and Elgin. If you live in one of those areas you are encouraged to try this nest box design for bluebirds. See the section below on “Win-Win for Azure Bluebirds and Arizona Vineyards.”
  • Southeast Arizona Mountain Birds: If you live in, or have a cabin in, any of the Sky Island Mountains of southeast Arizona there are likely to be many other birds that will nest in boxes, including woodpeckers, swallows, nuthatches, chickadees, wrens etc. A typical Bluebord Nestbox design satisfies the needs for many of these species. 

Nest Boxes Sources


Brown-crested Flycatcher (Kendall Kroesen)

Buy a box at the Tucson Audubon Nature Shops
Tucson Audubon’s University Boulevard Nature Shop has nest boxes constructed by program staff and volunteers. Please visit the shop at 300 E. University Blvd. to see what is in stock, or call them at (520) 629-0510. More info about the Nature Shops here.

Barn Owl Box: $100

Kestrel/Screech-owl Box: $55

Bluebird style Box: $35-45

Lucy’ Warbler Triangle Box: $5

No sales tax is ever charged at our shop and members get 10% off.

All proceeds go back into the Nestbox Program to help local birds find homes.

Do It Yourself

Here are suggested designs if you are a “do-it-yourselfer.” There are also good designs in the Audubon Birdhouse Book, available in the Tucson Audubon Nature Shops. After each of the three box design links below there is a box-specific info sheet you can download for that box.


Brown-crested Flycatcher chicks (Sara Pike)


Place the Box in your Yard

American Kestrel:
We had kestrels nest in one of our boxes at Tucson Audubon’s Mason Center in 2016! We believe they like their box to be 10-20 off the ground in open country with no branches obstructing the area in front of their box.In all cases nest boxes should be in as much shade as possible, especially afternoon shade.

Western Screech-Owl: Western Screech-Owls readily adopt nest boxes. To build a box for them, use the same plans as for the kestrel, except make the entry hole a three-inch circle rather than the oval shown there. Screech-owls are not too picky about placement of their boxes (sides of houses, in trees, etc.). Of course, shade is still a plus and open entry way is a must.


Ash-throated Flycatcher box in a shady spot (Kendall Kroesen)

Ash-throated Flycatcher: Ash-throated Flycatchers will nest in boxes in the Sonoran Desert. We have had them successfully nest as low as 4 feet above ground and as high as 10. They prefer minimal obstructions (like branches) in front of their nest hole.

Brown-crested Flycatcher: Brown-crested Flycatchers will use the same style box as Ash-throated Flycatchers. If you are in a more densely-inhabited neighborhood you are more likely to have Brown-crested around; if you are on the edge of town you are more likely to have Ash-throated. The placement requirements are the same as for Ash-throated Flycatcher.

Lucy’s Warbler: After our experiment to identify a nestbox design Lucy’s Warblers will readily use, the triangle box came out as a winner. Lucy’s Warblers used to be called Mesquite Warblers due to their close feeding and nesting ties with that tree. Put your nestbox in or near a mesquite tree to accommodate these birds. The box should be 4-8 feet off the ground in sufficient tree shade. If you are interested in helping with construction and/or monitoring of these experimental boxes please email

Bewick’s Wren:We have multiple reports of Bewick’s Wrens using bluebird boxes.  You may find them in chaparral-covered hillsides, oak woodlands, mixed evergreen forests, desert scrub, stands of prickly pear and other cacti, as well as mesquite and century plant. Will nest as low as 4 feet off the ground.

Bee keep exampleNative Solitary Bees: Native solitary bees are not honeybees and they are not Africanized “killer” bees. Instead, they are bees native to our area that live a solitary existence, only meeting others of their species when they mate. They don’t live together in hives and don’t have a queen to protect. So they are much less likely to sting. They play an important role in pollination of native plants and crops. We can help them by building or purchasing a bee box for them to lay eggs.

Monitor your Nest Box

We encourage you to let us know if birds use your box. If a nest is started, please register it at and follow the instructions in the following monitoring document, which will share your data with Tucson Audubon. Click here for nest box monitoring instructions!

Win-Win for Azure Bluebirds and Arizona Vineyards

In partnership with the North American Bluebird Society, University of Arizona, Sonoita Wine Guild and several other organizations, Tucson Audubon has launched an Azure Bluebird conservation project. Azure Bluebirds are a subspecies of the Eastern Bluebird, sometimes also referred to as the “Mexican” subspecies. As of late spring 2015 we have installed 56 nest boxes in the vineyards of the Sonoita and Elgin grasslands (southeast of Tucson). We have also started a nestbox preference study in 2017 where we installed 80 boxes in Canelo Hills and Patagonia Mountains. Though breeding in the grasslands is historically documented for Azures, eBird and first-hand accounts reveal that the breeding range and population numbers have decreased. Research states lack of adequate nesting cavities to be the population’s primary limiting factor. Learn more.

Fun Stuff!


Volunteer for Tucson Audubon’s Nestbox Program!

We need your help! Teams of nestbox builders and monitors are crucial to success. Contact us to find out how you can help the Nest Boxes for Urban Birds Pilot Project at this time.



Tucson Audubon Society
300 E University Blvd. #120 Tucson, AZ 85705

Mason Center
3835 W Hardy Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85742

Paton Center for Hummingbirds
477 Pennsylvania Ave.
Patagonia, AZ 85624
520 415-6447


Tucson Audubon Society
300 E University Blvd. #120
Tucson, AZ 85705

Mason Center
3835 W Hardy Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85742

Paton Center for Hummingbirds
477 Pennsylvania Ave.
Patagonia, AZ 85624
520 415-6447